Loin - the part of the body on either side of the spine between the ribs and hip bone.
Low bladder compliance - an abnormal (decreased) volume/pressure relationship during bladder filling.
Lower urinary tract - the components of the urinary tract that lie below the level of the kidneys. This consists of two ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra.
Lumen - the inside space of a tubular structure, such as the walls of a urethral catheter or arteries.
Malignancy - the presence of tumours/cancer.
Meatal - relating to a body passage (for example, the urethra or passage to the bladder).
Melatonin - a hormone produced by the pineal gland that helps to regulate sleep and wakefulness.
Metabolic - referring to the chemical processes necessary to maintain life in a living being.
Mindfulness - a psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences happening in the present moment, which can be developed through meditation or other techniques.
Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) - occurs when someone has both stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence.
Monotherapy - the treatment of a disease with a single intervention or drug.
Morbidity - the rate of sickness.
Neurogenic - caused by or arising from the nervous system.
Neurogenic urinary dysfunction - lack of bladder control due to a problem with the brain, spinal cord or nerves.
Neuromodulation - the alteration of nerve activity in the body through a targeted delivery of stimulus, for example an electrical stimulation.
Nocturnal enuresis/nocturia - passing urine involuntarily while asleep.
Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index - the ratio of urine produced overnight to total urine produced across a period of 24 hours.
Nocturnal polyuria - a condition where more than 33% of the urine produced in a 24 hour period is produced at night.
Non-dipping hypertension - an absence of the normal night-time fall (dip) in blood pressure.
Oedema - swelling, usually of the lower legs and ankles, due to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the tissues.
Oestrogen - the primary female sex hormone.
OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnoea) - a disorder in which breathing is repeatedly interrupted during sleep due to the collapse of tissues in the upper airways.
Osmotic - the movement of molecules through a membrane.
Overactive bladder - a symptom-based condition characterised by urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia with or without urge urinary incontinence.
Overflow incontinence - leakage of urine at greater than normal bladder capacity. It is associated with incomplete bladder emptying due to either impaired detrusor contractility or bladder outlet obstruction.
Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) - any method of training the pelvic floor muscles to contract.
Perioperative - occurring around the time of surgery.
Peripheral - the parts of the body furthest away from the centre e.g. the lower legs and arms.
Peripheral oedema - swelling in the legs and ankles.
Pessary - a device inserted into the vagina to support the uterus.
Pharmacotherapy - a drug therapy.
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - a self-reported questionnaire that assesses sleep quality.
Placebo - a fake or sham treatment.
Polydipsia - excessive drinking as a result of thirst.
Polyuria - producing a greater amount of urine than normal.
Postmenopausal - the period of time after which a woman stops menstruating permanently.
Postural hypertension - the lowering of blood pressure through rising after lying or sitting down.
Post‐void dribble - dribbling loss of urine, which occurs after urinating.
Progesterone - a female sex hormone.
Prostatic - of or relating to the prostate.
Prostatitis - inflammation of the prostate.
Radical prostatectomy - complete surgical removal of the prostate.
Rectal prolapse (procidencia) - the protrusion through the anus of all layers of the rectal wall.
Renal - relating to the kidneys.
Restless Legs Syndrome - a disorder characterised by uncomfortable sensations in the legs and a compelling need to move the legs, which is usually experienced when trying to sleep.
Rigors - shivering from the chills.
SF-36 (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) - a generic quality of life measure.
Sleep hygiene - a series of habits that lead to sleeping well.
Smooth muscle - an involuntary muscle which generally forms the supporting tissue of blood vessels and hollow internal organs, such as the bladder.
Sphincter abnormalities causing urinary incontinence - there are two generic types of sphincter abnormalities: urethral hypermobility (instability of the urethra) and intrinsic sphincter deficiency (a malfunction of the urethral sphincter itself). The two conditions may coexist. At the present time, there are no well‐defined objective methods to distinguish between the two.
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) - involuntary loss of urine during coughing, sneezing, or physical exertion such as sport activities, sudden changes of position, etc.
Stricture - the narrowing of a bodily structure.
Suprapubic - above the pelvic area.