5-alpha reductase inhibitors - a group of medications which are used primarily in the treatment of an enlarged prostate gland.
Abscess - a collection of pus that has built up within tissues of the body.
Acupuncture - a form of Chinese complementary medicine in which the skin or tissue is pricked with needles to relieve pain or treat various physical, mental or emotional conditions.
Alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists - a group of medications used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure and enlarged prostate.
Alpha blocker - medication used to relax muscles or blood vessels.
Ambulatory setting - refers to the outpatient "walk in" setting.
Androgen - a male sex hormone (e.g. testosterone).
Anti-diuretic - a substance that helps to control the balance of fluid in the body by increasing blood pressure and decreasing urine output. Its effects are opposite to a diuretic.
Antimicrobials - a substance that kills or stops the growth of tiny, potentially harmful organisms that can only be seen under a microscope.
Anti-muscarinic - a group of medications used to treat overactive bladder.
Bacteruria - the presence of bacteria in the urine.
Beta-3 agonist - a group of medicines used to treat overactive bladder.
Bladder augmentation - surgery performed to make the bladder larger.
Bladder diary - a record that documents fluid intake, frequency of urinary, degree of urgency and number of episodes in urinary incontinence.
Bladder outlet obstruction - a blockage at the base of the bladder which reduces or stops the flow of urine to the urethra and out of the body.
Botulism A toxin - more commonly known as Botox. It is sometimes used as a form of treatment for incontinence.
Cardiac - of or relating to the heart.
Cardiovascular - relating to the heart and blood vessels.
Co-morbidities - the existence of two or more medical conditions at the same time.
Coronary - relating to the blood vessels of the heart.
CPAP - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. A form of treatment for sleep apnoea that utilises a machine to stimulate normal breathing while sleeping.
Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder wall, usually caused by a bladder infection.
Cystocele - the bulging of the bladder into the vagina as a result of weak supportive tissues.
Dementia - a group of conditions of which the main symptom is a global decline in brain function.
Detrusor - the smooth, outer, muscular structure of the bladder wall.
Detrusor hyperreflexia - involuntary bladder muscle (detrusor) contractions which are due to neurologic conditions.
Detrusor instability - involuntary bladder muscle (detrusor) contractions which are due to reasons other than neurologic disorders. The diagnosis must be made using urodynamics.
Detrusor overactivity - a generic term for involuntary bladder muscle (detrusor) contractions. This term is used when a cause is unclear.
Diuresis - an increase in passing urine.
Diuretics - medications used to remove excess water and salt from the body through urine.
Diurnal - daily.
Dysuria - difficult or painful urination.
Encopresis - repeated passage of faeces into inappropriate places (e.g. clothing or floor) whether involuntary or intentional.
Enuresis - a 'normal' void taking place at an inappropriate or socially unacceptable time or place.
Extraurethral incontinence - leakage of urine from a source other than the urethra. It may be due to urinary fistula or ectopic ureter.
Faecal incontinence - the involuntary passing of faeces.
Flank - the fleshy part of the body that sits between the ribs and the hip bone.
Fluid overload - also known as hypervolaemia. It is the condition of having too much fluid in the body.
Fluid tablets - see "diuretics".
Global polyuria - a continuously raised urine output, defines as more than 40 ml/kg over 24 hours.
Glomerular filtration rate - a test of how well the kidneys are working. It estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli (the small blood vessels inside the kidneys) each minute.
Glomerulus - a network of capillaries (small blood vessels) located within the kidneys.
Glucose - a simple sugar that is a source of energy for living beings.
Glycaemic - the presence of glucose (a simple sugar) within the blood.
Haematuria - the presence of blood in the urine.
Haemorrhage - excessive bleeding, usually from a ruptured blood vessel.
Homeopathy - a complementary or alternative medicine.
Hypnotics - a group of drugs used to cause sleep.
Hypertension - high blood pressure.
Incontinence - involuntary leakage of urine.
In situ - in place.
Insomnia - the inability to fall asleep.
Intrinsic sphincter deficiency - a malfunction of the urethral sphincter itself.